Panorámica de la geología médica en Zimbabwe y áreas aledañas

Tendai Njila, Daina Mudimbu, Ndakaiteyi Chinguno, Plaxcedes Chikwema

Resumen


Las anomalías geoquímicas de fluoruro, arsénico, mercurio, cadmio y otros elementos químicos en los suelos, los sedimentos y el agua, así como la exposición a materiales asbestiformes en las áreas de minería, pueden afectar la salud del hombre y los animales. Las comunidades rurales y periurbanas de Zimbabwe, cercanas a los frentes de minería y áreas mineralizadas, están propensas a los impactos medioambientales porque dependen de la minería artesanal a pequeña escala y de la agricultura de subsistencia. En estas comunidades se han reportado casos de fluorosis en dentadura y huesos, envenenamiento por arsénico y mesotelioma, que es la mayor causa de muerte en el último milenio. Se han propuesto medidas de mitigación en numerosas publicaciones pero aún con relativa poca aplicación. Se pretende resumir en este artículo los resultados acopiados hasta la fecha en lo que concierne a los efectos de los elementos geológicos en el hombre y en los ecosistemas de Zimbabwe,sus impactos y la necesidad de continuar las investigaciones y la implementación de medidas para la mitigación de esos impactos.

Palabras clave


Geología médica; fluorosis; mesotelioma; impactos medioambientales; salud; Zimbabwe

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Referencias


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